Over the centuries, as their understanding improved, scientists developed different MODELS to explain what MATTER is made from (PARTICLES) and HOW THESE PARTICLES fit and interact together.

  • What is a MODEL? A MODEL is any kind of picture, diagram, object or mathematical statement.

  • When do we use MODELS? When the real thing is too small, too big, too far away or just too dangerous to study.

  • How do we use them? To MAKE and TEST PREDICTIONS.


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with grateful thanks to S.MORRIS

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this is where we get the name ATOM from



The DALTON MODEL
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The RUTHERFORD MODEL
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source:Wikimedia Commons
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The BOHR MODEL
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1932 The CHADWICK MODEL

Chadwick won the Nobel Prize.
What did his model show us about the structure of the atom?


PRESENT-DAY / CURRENT ATOMIC MODELcurrrent_atomic_model-_www.newcastle-school.jpg Electrons form a negatively charged cloud around the nucleusand it is impossible to know exactly where any electron could be at any particular moment in time.We do know that
  • the electrons with LOWER ENERGY move in the space NEAR the NUCLEUS
  • the electrons with HIGHER ENERGY move in the space FURTHER from the NUCLEUS















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